The region of Borders is as expected on the Scottish-English border areas. In comprises the burghs of Selkirkshire, Roxburghshire, Ettrick & Lauderdale, Berwickshire, Peebleshire and Berwick.
The region of Grampian is in the northeast. It shares a western border with the Highland region, and is bordered in the south by the region of Tayside. The ancient counties contained within the Grampian region include Aberdeen, Moray, and Banff.
Fife is one of the smallest regions in present-day Scotland. It is located on the eastern coast, on the northern shore of the Firth of Forth. It shares its northern border with the region of Tayside, and is bordered by Central to the west. Across the water, to the south, is the region of Lothian. The ancient counties contained within the region of Fife are Kincardine and Fife.
The Highland region is the largest geographical division in Scotland. This region is in the northwest, and shares borders in the southeast with Grampian and Tayside, and is bordered in the immediate south, by the region of Strathclyde. The ancient counties contained within the massive region are Caithness, Sutherland, and Nairn, and the eastern parts of Inverness and Ross and Cromarty.
The region of Lothian is in the southeast of Scotland, and is bordered on the north by the Firth of Forth. It shares a northwestern border with the region of Central, a western border with the region of Strathclyde, and a southern border with the region of Borders. The ancient counties located within this region are East Lothian, Midlothian, West Lothian, and Edinburgh.
The region of Orkney is an islands region, in the extreme north of Scotland. The nearest mainland region to the Orkney islands is the Highland region, which is to the southwest. In the Middle Ages, this region was known as the county of Orkney.
The region of Shetland was known in the Middle Ages, by the name Zetland. This is another island region, and is in the east. The nearest mainland regions are the Highland region, to the west, and the Grampian region, to the south. In the medieval era, this region was known as the Zetland (Shetland) Islands.
The Strathclyde region is another large geographical area, which is in the west. It is bordered to the north, by the Highland region, to the east, in descending order, by Tayside, Central, Lothian, and Borders, and in the south, by Dumfries and Galloway. The ancient counties contained within this region are Renfrew, Argyll, Lanark, Bute, and Ayr. The western part of the county of Peebles is also in this region.
The Western Isles region is the largest island region in Scotland. It is in the Atlantic Ocean, to the immediate west of the Highland region. It is separated from that region by the North and Little Minch, in the north, and by the Hebrides in the south. In the Middle Ages, part of the counties of Inverness, and Ross and Cromarty were in this region.
The region of Tayside is in the central eastern part of Scotland. This county is bordered in the north by the region of Grampian, in the west by the Highland and Strathclyde regions, and in the south by the regions of Central and Fife. The ancient counties contained within this region are Kinross, Angus and Perth.
- ^ Swyrich, Archive materials